top of page

process-oriented art and our workshops

At studio sternstunden we offer courses and workshops where the focus is on the process of making art and not on the end product. Your individual creative journey as well as the connection and creative interaction of the community has been our mission since 2014.


This approach involves giving you the opportunity to experiment and improvise, allowing you to focus on the feel, the process and the journey rather than the destination. With this focus, your ideas emerge and develop on their own without the pressure of having to produce a masterpiece. Uncertainty and unexpected results are an integral part of this process and shape the creative work. We see trying to predict, plan or control the outcome as a hindrance to your creativity. ​At the same time, we try to work with a variety of materials and techniques and are constantly looking for new possibilities of expression.

In our workshops you can experience different forms of process-oriented art with international artists, including painting, drawing, collage, multimedia works and installations.


why process-oriented art?

1. Process-oriented art encourages you to work creatively and allows you to focus on the creative process rather than on achieving a specific end result. This focus on the moment and exploration of new techniques, materials and ideas promotes innovation, creativity and personal growth.

2. Process-oriented art offers you a space to express yourself authentically, without the pressure to meet external expectations or conform to given standards. This attitude allows you to create more authentic and meaningful artistic results.

3. Participating in the creative process means you are fully immersed in the act of creating art. This can have therapeutic benefits and can help you reduce stress and develop a sense of calm and relaxation.

4. Process-oriented art encourages you to embrace uncertainty, imperfection and change while grappling with the unpredictability of the creative process. This flexibility and adaptability helps you develop resilience and problem-solving skills.

5. Process-oriented art promotes connections and engagement between artists and viewers. Anyone who takes part in the creative process and experiences the journey of creating art will also be able to do more with other people's art as a viewer, understand it on a deeper level and have the willingness to engage with it more consciously. This interactive and participatory approach promotes viewers' appreciation for art and strengthens the sense of community and connection between artists and viewers.


background process-oriented art 

Process-oriented art, which emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, broke with traditional artistic conventions by shifting the focus from the finished work of art to the process of creation. Inspired by performance art, Eastern philosophies and the social environment of the time, artists such as Eva Hesse and Bruce Nauman challenged the notion of art as a solid object.

This movement, represented by key figures such as Ana Mendieta and Robert Morris, emphasized experimentation, improvisation and social activism. By focusing on the process itself, she questioned traditional concepts of authorship and originality.

Process-oriented art opens new avenues for artistic expression and challenges museums and cultural institutions to develop as dynamic spaces for collaboration and participation. In the future, they could be places where artists and communities create art and experiences together to celebrate diversity of voices and actively engage audiences.

thoughts on art - 18.PNG

some prominent visual artists
known for process-oriented art

in alphabetical order
  1. Marina Abramović (Republic of Serbia former Yugoslavia): Marina Abramović (*30th of November 1946) is known for work that embodies the ethos of process-oriented art by prioritizing the experience of the moment and the act of creating over the creation of tangible objects. Through her performances, she invites viewers to engage directly with her work and to reflect on their own perceptions of time, space, and the human condition.

  2. Joseph Beuys (Germany): Joseph Heinrich Beuys (* 12th of May 1921 † 23rd of January 1986) was a German performance artist, sculptor, medalist, draftsman, art theorist and professor at the Düsseldorf Art Academy. Beuys known for his performances, sculptures, installations, and drawings. He often incorporated unconventional materials such as felt, fat, and honey into his works, exploring themes of transformation, spirituality, and social change. 

  3. Lygia Clark (Brazil): Lygia Clark (*23rd of Oktober 1920 † 25th of April 1988) wird mit der Neo-Konkret-Bewegung in Verbindung gebracht und war für ihre innovativen Herangehensweisen an das Kunstschaffen bekannt, bei denen oft die Beteiligung und Einbindung des Betrachters am kreativen Prozess im Vordergrund stand. Ihre innovativen Herangehensweisen an das Kunstschaffen stellten traditionelle Vorstellungen von Autorschaft und Zuschauerschaft in Frage und forderten die Betrachter auf, sich aktiv mit dem Kunstwerk auseinanderzusetzen und Mitschöpfer im kreativen Prozess zu werden.

  4. Olafur Eliasson (Denmark/Iceland): Olafur Eliasson (*5th of Februar 1967) is a Danish-Icelandic artist known for his immersive installations and environmental artworks. He often incorporates elements of light, color, and natural phenomena into his works, creating interactive experiences that engage viewers on both sensory and intellectual levels. Eliasson's immersive installations frequently involve meticulous attention to process. He often collaborates with scientists and engineers to develop his artworks, which incorporate elements such as light, water, and natural phenomena. Eliasson's works invite viewers to engage actively with the process of perception and experience, blurring the boundaries between art and environment.

  5. Lucio Fontana (Argentina): Fontana (*19th of Februar 1899  † 7th of September 1968) was an Italian-Argentinian artist known for his Spatialist movement, which sought to integrate art with science and technology. He is perhaps best known for his "Spatial Concept" series, in which he punctured or sliced through the canvas to create dynamic, three-dimensional compositions.

  6. Helen Frankenthaler (USA): Frankenthaler (*12th of Dezember 1928 † 27rd of Dezember 2011) was an influential figure in abstract expressionism and color field painting. She developed a technique known as "soak-stain," where she poured thinned paint onto unprimed canvases, allowing the colors to soak into the fabric and create vibrant, atmospheric compositions.

  7. Eva Hesse (Germany/USA): Hesse (*11th of Januar 1936 † 29rd of Mai 1970) was a pioneering figure in post-minimalism and process art. She experimented with unconventional materials such as latex, fiberglass, and rubber to create organic, often ephemeral sculptures that explored themes of repetition, transformation, and bodily experience.

  8. Anish Kapoor (United Kingdom/India): Anish Kapoor  (*12th of März 1954) is a British-Indian sculptor known for his large-scale installations and public artworks. Kapoor's practice often involves a deep engagement with materials and processes. He experiments with various materials, exploring their physical properties and the ways in which they interact with light and space. Kapoor's process of creation is often as important as the final outcome, with his sculptures and installations evolving through experimentation and iteration.

  9. Allan Kaprow (USA): Allan Kaprow (*23rd of August 1927 † 5th of April 2006) was a performance artist, installation artist, painter and assemblageist. Kaprow was one of the pioneers of the so-called “happenings” and performance art that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s. He was known for his experimental and interactive art activities that blurred the boundaries between art and everyday life, between artists and audiences. Kaprow's art actions invited the audience to actively participate in the artistic process. The audience often became participants and could help shape the direction and course of the event. Kaprow's happenings were often temporary in nature, consisting of fleeting, spontaneous events that arose in the moment and then disappeared again. The actions were not recorded for posterity and existed only in the memories of those who were there. Kaprow often used everyday materials and places for his art actions, such as streets, parks, supermarkets or apartments. By using familiar materials and environments, he wanted to create a direct connection to everyday life. Kaprow's work emphasized the idea of collaboration and community. His happenings were often collective endeavors in which different people came together to share and create creative experiences. Overall, it can be said that Allan Kaprow is one of the pioneers of process-oriented art and has made a significant contribution to the development of this art movement through his happenings and performance art.

  10. Yves Klein (France): While Yves Klein's (*28th of April 1928 † 6th of June 1962) work may not fit neatly into the category of process-oriented art, his practice did incorporate elements of audience participation, ephemerality, and experimentation that align with process-oriented principles. For example, in his Anthropometry performances, Klein used nude models as "living brushes," allowing them to apply paint directly to canvas while being guided by his directions. This process involved both the artist and the participants in the creation of the artwork, challenging traditional notions of authorship and ownership. Klein's exploration of the ephemeral and immaterial aspects of art is another aspect of his practice that aligns with process-oriented approaches. His concept of the "immaterialization" of art, as exemplified by his "Zone of Immaterial Pictorial Sensibility," challenged conventional ideas about the permanence and materiality of artworks. Klein sought to transcend the physical limitations of traditional art objects and create experiences that were fleeting and intangible. While Klein is perhaps best known for his use of monochromatic blue color, he also experimented with a variety of techniques and materials in his practice. For example, he developed his own pigment, International Klein Blue (IKB), which he used in his monochromatic paintings. Klein's willingness to explore new materials and techniques reflects a process-oriented approach to art-making, emphasizing experimentation and innovation. His innovative approaches to art-making challenged established norms and expanded the possibilities of artistic expression, leaving a lasting impact on the art world.

  11. Yayoi Kusama (Japan): Yayoi Kusama  (*22rd of März 1929) is a Japanese artist known for her immersive installations, sculptures, and paintings. Her work often explores themes of repetition, infinity, and the dissolution of the self. Kusama's repetitive and obsessive use of motifs such as polka dots and infinity mirrors demonstrates a process-oriented approach to creation. Her immersive installations, such as her "Infinity Rooms," invite viewers to experience a sense of infinity and transcendence through the repetition of forms and patterns.

  12. Ana Mendieta (Cuba): Ana Mendieta (*18th of November 1948 † 8th of September 1985) was a Cuban-American artist known for her innovative and provocative works, many of which could be considered process-oriented. Mendieta's practice was deeply rooted in concepts of identity, nature, and the body, and she often employed performance, sculpture, and photography to explore these themes.

  13. Robert Morris (USA): Robert Morris (*9.Feb 1931 - † 28. Nov 2018) is associated with process-oriented art through his exploration of the creative process and his emphasis on the physicality and materiality of art-making. While he's perhaps best known for his contributions to Minimalism and Conceptual art, Morris also engaged with ideas that intersect with the principles of process-oriented art. In his work, Morris often focused on the act of creation itself rather than the final product. He experimented with unconventional materials and techniques, and his installations sometimes evolved over time, inviting viewers to witness the process of their creation. Additionally, Morris's interest in viewer interaction and the relationship between art and its environment resonates with the ethos of process-oriented art, which prioritizes engagement with the artistic process over the finished artwork. 

  14. Bruce Nauman (USA): Bruce Nauman's ((*6 Dezember 1941)emphasis on repetition and variation highlights the iterative nature of the artistic process and the potential for discovery through experimentation. He often creates sculptures, installations, and videos that document the process of making art, blurring the boundaries between art-making and documentation. Nauman is known for his innovative use of materials and techniques, which often involve a process of trial and error. He has worked with a wide range of mediums, including neon, video, sculpture, and performance, pushing the limits of each medium to explore new possibilities for artistic expression. Nauman's work frequently engages the viewer in a direct and visceral way, inviting them to participate in the artwork or to confront their own perceptions and assumptions.His artworks often highlight the physical and psychological challenges of artistic production, inviting viewers to reflect on the nature of creativity and authorship.

  15. Yoko Ono (Japan): Yoko Ono (*18th of February 1933) is often considered a process-oriented artist. Throughout her career, Ono has employed various artistic strategies that prioritize the process of creation, exploration, and participation over the final outcome. Here are some aspects of Yoko Ono's practice that align with process-oriented approaches. Much of Yoko Ono's work involves the creation of instructions or scores that guide participants in carrying out specific actions or interventions. These instructions often encourage viewers to engage with their surroundings in new and unexpected ways, fostering a sense of spontaneity and creativity. For example, her "Instructions for Paintings" series invites viewers to imagine and create their own artworks based on written prompts. Ono's art frequently invites audience participation and engagement. She often collaborates with viewers to create interactive installations, performances, and events that blur the boundaries between artist and audience. For example, her "Cut Piece" performance piece involves Ono sitting passively onstage while viewers are invited to approach and cut away pieces of her clothing, exploring themes of vulnerability, trust, and power dynamics. Ono is associated with the Fluxus movement and conceptual art, both of which prioritize ideas and concepts over traditional artistic forms or materials. Her work often explores philosophical and existential themes, such as love, peace, and human connection, through simple and direct means. For example, her "Imagine Peace" project invites participants to write their wishes for peace on paper tags, which are then displayed in public spaces around the world. Ono's background in music and performance art has influenced her approach to art-making. She often incorporates elements of sound, improvisation, and audience interaction into her work, creating immersive and transformative experiences for participants. Her performances, such as her "Grapefruit" events and her collaborations with John Lennon, explore the boundaries between art and life, challenging conventional notions of artistic practice and audience engagement. Overall, Yoko Ono's practice embodies many principles of process-oriented art, with its emphasis on participation, collaboration, and exploration. Her innovative approaches to art-making have had a significant impact on the field of contemporary art, inspiring generations of artists to embrace the creative process as a form of personal and collective expression.

  16. Jackson Pollock (USA): Paul Jackson Pollock (*28th of January 1912 † 11th of August 1956) was an American painter and an important representative of the abstract expressionism of the New York School. Pollock is perhaps one of the most famous proponents of process-oriented art. He developed his iconic drip painting technique, where he would pour or drip paint onto canvases laid on the floor, allowing the paint to flow and splatter in unpredictable ways.

  17. Robert Rauschenberg (USA): Rauschenberg (*22rd of Oktober 1925 † 12th of Mai 2008) was known for his innovative use of materials and techniques in his art. He often incorporated found objects, everyday materials, and collage elements into his works, blurring the boundaries between painting, sculpture, and assemblage.

  18. Richard Serra (USA): Serra (*2nd of November 1938 † 26th of März 2024) is known for his monumental sculptures made from industrial materials such as steel. His process-oriented approach involves the manipulation of these materials through cutting, bending, and stacking, resulting in massive, site-specific installations that engage viewers physically and spatially.

  19. Cy Twombly (USA): Cy Twombly (*25th of April 1928 † 5th of July 2011) is often considered a process-oriented artist. Throughout his career, Twombly was known for his distinctive gestural style, which emphasized spontaneity, improvisation, and the act of mark-making. His paintings, drawings, and sculptures often exhibit a raw, expressive quality that reflects his intuitive and process-oriented approach to art-making. Twombly's work is characterized by loose, gestural marks that often resemble scribbles, doodles, and scrawls. He used a variety of tools and techniques, including brushes, pencils, and his own hands, to create dynamic and expressive compositions. Twombly frequently built up his compositions through layers of paint, graphite, and other materials, often incorporating elements of collage and mixed media. He then selectively erased or obscured parts of the surface, creating a sense of depth, ambiguity, and mystery. Twombly's artistic process was deeply intuitive, with a focus on spontaneous and immediate expression. He embraced accidents, imperfections, and the unpredictability of the creative process, allowing his works to evolve organically over time. Twombly frequently worked in series, creating multiple works that explored variations on a theme or motif. His series often unfolded over extended periods of time, with each work informing and influencing the next, reflecting his ongoing exploration of process and experimentation. Overall, Cy Twombly's practice exemplifies the principles of process-oriented art, with its emphasis on spontaneity, intuition, and the physical act of creation. His works invite viewers to immerse themselves in the immediacy and vitality of the artistic process, engaging with the expressive energy and emotional resonance of his distinctive visual language. 

  20. Ai Weiwei (China): Ai Weiwei (* 28th of August 1957) is a Chinese artist, activist, and dissident known for his provocative and politically charged artworks. His practice encompasses a wide range of media, including sculpture, installation, photography, and performance, and he often explores themes of freedom, human rights, and social justice. While he is perhaps best known for his political activism and social commentary, elements of process-oriented art can be found in his practice. He often works with found objects and materials, repurposing them in his sculptures and installations. Ai's works often evolve over time, responding to changing social and political contexts, and he frequently involves communities in the process of creation.

bottom of page